With iPad Walls and Mobile Phones, It’s the Bank of the Future

Here’s how it works: You add your credit card information to your cell phone through an application on the phone (protected by a secure password). Kay said, “we have to make sure we’re not just designing for the technology savvy up and comers. Hopkins says the company just doesn’t think it’s too far ahead of the curve. So far customers of all ages are finding it accessible.”

3) The sales wall. Ever wonder how we’ll be get cash and buy stuff in the future? Fox News Channel’s cameras were the first to go inside CitiBank’s renovated “Innovation Lab” underneath its branch in Midtown Manhattan.

What happens if someone steals your phone? Citi’s strict security features immediately shut the device off if it’s stolen, the company claims.

CauseWorld is an app that allows you to check into retailers (Starbucks, perhaps?) and get “Karma Points” you can collect and give to a charity of your choice. banks within the next two years. “The consumer is driving behavior through things like the iPhone and really demanding this kind of experience.”

4) The work bench. (If they’re not already treating you to a meal for being such a nice tech-savvy friend.)

As technology evolves, all businesses are trying to keep up, including the banking industry. Robot assistants? Don’t push it, pal. A specially designed wall in Citibank facilities allows customers to see the latest local and world news. And Citi Shopper will give you reviews, the best price in your neighborhood, and let you know if a product you want is in stock. Like a giant iPhone that lets you shop for different credit cards or home loans, the sales wall is a massive screen. A free, peer-to-peer app easily lets you text the amount you owe to your companion’s phone. “I think we feel really good about what we’re doing.”

The company wants to create banking on the go, letting a customer start a “conversation” with CitiBank at an ATM and pick it up later on a mobile phone that will know where you left off.. We believe collaboration is the way of the future.”

Is this stuff gonna be too technical for Grandma? And will it eliminate the traditional bank teller job? No worries — there will always be an option to talk face to face with a real person. (Nokia has announced plans to build these antennas into all of its phones starting next year.)

So when should we expect to see Citi’s “Bank of the Future” in mainstream America? Citi says these features should roll out in U.S. When purchasing an item, you open up the credit card app and tap your phone on the machine as payment.

“we’re knee-deep in everything Apple,” said Hopkins. Citibank’s Innovation Lab isn’t that futuristic.

Banking via mobile phone? Check. Citibank’s Innovation Lab — which the company calls the bank of the future — isn’t that futuristic.

1) Your mobile phone is your wallet. He and chief innovation officer Debby Hopkins are leading CitiBank’s initiative to transform transactions.

Citi’s Innovation Lab has four main prototypes. It’s easy to use, too. Citibank Unveils Bank of the Future

Banking via mobile phone? Check. Interactive, Apple-iPad style walls? You bet. But she’s happy with progress. Interactive, Apple-iPad style walls? You bet. In three steps you can find the credit card you want, apply, then print it out. (Think Tom Cruise in Minority Report!) You can either scan the information to your phone or apply right on the screen.

“We’re seeing a historic shift here,” Hopkins told FoxNews.com. The app is available on the iPhone, iPad and soon Android phones.

As technology evolves, all businesses are trying to keep up, including the banking industry. Should you need help, there’s a video agent that will talk you through your transaction and give you real personal service.

Another cool phone feature lets you split a restaurant bill with a friend. You flip through products on a large touch screen that works like the “cover flow” feature on iPods. Ever wonder how we’ll get cash and buy stuff in the future? Fox News Channel’s cameras were the first to go inside CitiBank’s renovated “Innovation Lab” underneath its branch in Midtown Manhattan.

Citi doesn’t claim to be a technology trendsetter, in spite of everything on display. However, the company just launched a few new applications you can use right now — and it helps that mobile phones have the ability to know your location is.

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Taxpayers will surely want to know how much a massive technological initiative like this cost — especially after hearing that CitiBank received $49 billion in bailout money. “We’re a very small team, we’re very scrappy. Robot assistants? Don’t push it, pal. Citi wants to keep the experience simple too. We don’t spend huge amounts of money and we partner heavily. “We’re huge believers in their capabilities, approach and philosophy which is creating really strong design but backed by extraordinary systems.”

2) The interactive media wall. For “Tap and Pay” to work, your phone will have to be enabled with a special antenna, of course. It’s like a digital poster with promotions in real time, and Citi worked on it with the same firm that designed the iPhone. 

“Our goal is to be a digital bank where customers have access to their financial life in their pockets” said Chris Kay, head of growth ventures for the giant bank. All of them are currently up and running in Japan and other parts of Asia, where Citi says customers love the innovations.

The whole transaction is captured and sent, with your receipt and warranty to — you guessed it — your phone. Looking for a more private banking experience? You want the work bench. Hopkins says we’d be surprised — the total is under 100 million dollars

The forbidden Bible | Fox News

Christians open the pages of the Bible and read about loving one’s enemies, standing up for the oppressed and worshipping God alone. While incidences of targeted religious hostilities do exist in the U.S., they are relatively few and far between.. Yet in too many places in the world, this life-changing book is forbidden.

Roy Peterson is president and CEO of American Bible Society (ABS). At the American Bible Society, we hear from ministry partners around the world of those who are literally dying for access to a Bible.

And lets pray that those with Bibles on their shelves will avail themselves of the privilege to engage with God’s Word daily.

Persecution takes different forms in different contexts. Such a philosophy of equality is anathema to those who seek to depress and exploit the largest part of their citizenry in order to reserve exclusive powers and privileges for themselves and their cronies. Terror groups across the Middle East, and in increasingly in parts of Africa, target Christians–people of the Bible–for torture and death.

At a time when racism and sexism was prevalent, the Bible says Jesus called his followers to show love to all. And those regimes who seek to impose a religion on its people by any available means must despise Jesus’ invitation (rather than command) to follow Him and His clear teaching that true faith must be born in the heart rather than imposed or inherited.

Yet many Christians living under unimaginable oppression continue to risk their freedom and their lives in order to have access to even a portion of the Bible. And in far too many places, Christians face imprisonment, torture and death simply because of their faith in Christ. In other nations, Christians are attacked financially, having their assets confiscated and the earning ability curtailed. In some places, Christians are ostracized and marginalized from society. But what they have in common is a culture that allows for the persecution of Christians.

The Bible is a revolutionary book. For followers of Christ, the Bible is a source of hope and encouragement. In Central Asia, Christians’ homes are raided to see if they are guilty of the crime of owning a Bible. Visit the ABS website, like ABS on Facebook and follow ABS on Twitter.

According to Open Doors USA, up to three generations of a family can face imprisonment and even death if one member of the family is caught with a Bible in North Korea. This annual ranking of the 50 countries and regions where it is most difficult and dangerous to be a Christian features a diverse group of nations. It is a story that surely must threaten those who seek god-like worship from their citizens.

One insidious type of persecution against Christians is the denial of access to the Bible. We wake up each day with the ability to read our sacred texts, attend our religious services, and speak and write freely about our beliefs. Show your support by praying and advocating for those without the Scriptures.

That reality was driven home for me with the recent release of Open Doors USA’s 2015 World Watch List. They vary in size from the small to the vast, in governance from the totalitarian to the democratic, and in socio-economic conditions from the staggeringly wealthy to the startlingly poor. They vary in location, from Asia to Africa to the Middle East to the Americas. Whatever the type of persecution, the goal is the same: eliminate or minimize the influence in society of people of a particular faith.

I hope that people who have religious freedom will not forget those who do not. Whether by honoring the actions of the Good Samaritan (a man from a group that was reviled by the Jewish society of the day), reaching out to an outcast leper or affirming the worth and dignity of women, Jesus bucked the rigid social rules. For followers of Christ, the Bible is a source of hope and encouragement. Yet in too many places in the world, this life-changing book is forbidden.

Religious persecution is not something that most Americans have personally experienced. And religious persecution targeting Christians is on the rise.

What is it about this book that many of the regimes on the World Watch List find so threatening?

One insidious type of persecution against Christians is the denial of access to the Bible. While we may hear the odd snide remark about our religious group or be offended by the depiction of our faith in popular entertainment, we nevertheless experience an unsurpassed degree of religious freedom.

But religious persecution is all too common in many parts of the world. Totalitarian regimes and those who hope to bring a society into unquestioned obedience to a particular doctrine must see the Bible as a threat to their control.

Simply put, the Bible is not the friend of the hate mongering or the tyrannical.

In the pages of the Bible, we find the story of Daniel and his three brave friends who refused to worship Nebuchadnezzar, even under threat of death

Thailand Packages And Singapore Tour Package Give You The Best Of Asia

The country is clean, neat, hygienic and very well maintained. But despite its modernity, the country has an intrinsic charm and an element of quaintness. . And with an exciting Singapore tour package, you can make sure that you do not miss out on a good place!

Thailand and Singapore are two of the hottest holiday destinations in south-east Asia.

Thailand packages are also fit for enjoying sightseeing. Pretty much like its cousin Thailand, Singapore is a well maintained country with plenty of beaches, temples, gardens and other attractions. The temples themselves replicate both grandness and solitude. You can play with the dolphins at Dolphin Lagoon or admire the artifacts at Fort Siloso Museum. The roads are smooth and stunning in looks while the infrastructure communication facilities are the best in the world. There are plenty of beaches that will woo you with their magnificence, exoticness and water sports. Singapore Flyover shall virtually help you touch the sky while the aquariums will show you the world beneath the sea. The blooming Thailand tourism has done its bit to keep the visitors satisfied. Activities like banana boating, parasailing, jet skiing, scuba diving and snorkeling can give you an experience which you will never forget.

Thailand, pretty much like India, is full of rich diversity. But when it comes to wildlife, Singapore certainly holds an edge. There can be no better place for a holiday than Singapore. On one hand, you have hospitable locals and salubrious surroundings and on the other hand, you have the most beautiful Buddhist temples in the world. The nightlife here is also enviable. Amongst the countless sightseeing attractions, some of them are the Temple of Dawn, Wat Pho, Temple of Emerald Budha, Grand Palace, Ayutthaya and Sukothai.

You can romp on the beaches at Sentosa Island or stand beneath the wonderful Statue of Merlion. The Jurong Bird Park, Night Safari and Singapore Zoo are surely world-famous and will make your trip seem like a fairy tale. The high-rise buildings, glamorous shopping malls and a powerful web of flyovers have lent this country a very ‘wow’ look. So, if your thirst for a holiday is still not satiated, you can buy a Singapore tour package and head to this carnival country. There are plenty of bars, restaurants, food joints and casinos where you can enjoy to the fullest. It is particularly noted for its shopping complexes, restaurants and hotels. Thailand packages will drop you in a country that is as modern as one can ask for. In this article, we shall take a sneak peek at the blooming Thailand tourism and the charms of a Singapore holiday.

Singapore holiday: Singapore is not very far from Thailand. Another must-visit city is Pattaya and if you wish to experience the heavenly thrills of beaches, then Phuket is the place to be. Fun-filled locales, luxurious hotels, charming landscape, beautiful girls, explosive beaches and fabulous markets have given a very positive image to the Thailand tourism industry. People from far and wide make full use of Thailand packages and Singapore tour package to enjoy their holidays at very economic rates. At Phuket, you can do things which you have perhaps never done before. So, go there and have a blast!

Bangkok is the capital city of the country and is indeed extremely wondrous

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Asian Stocks Lower on Greek Impasse

Greece’s decision illustrates how much it is struggling to meet its financial obligations without rescue, and the possibility that Greece could default on its debts and become the first country to drop the euro currency made investors nervous.

OIL: Benchmark U.S.

CURRENCIES: The euro rose to $1.1211 from $1.1195. Hong Kong’s Hang Seng dropped 0.4 percent to 27,431.29 and Australia’s SP/ASX 200 dipped 0.1 percent to 5,498.60. refineries, rose 14 cents to $62.17 in London.. Stocks in Southeast Asia were lower. jobs and China’s trade to be released … a safety first approach seems logical,” said Ric Spooner, chief market analyst at CMC Markets.

KEEPING SCORE: Tokyo’s Nikkei 225 fell 0.4 percent to 20,398.95 and South Korea’s Kospi was down 0.3 percent to 2,067.76. crude added 4 cents to $58.03 a barrel in electronic trading on the New York Mercantile Exchange. But stocks in mainland China rose.

GREEK UNCERTAINTY: A meeting Wednesday between Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras and the head of the European Union’s executive arm ran into the early morning hours on Thursday yet failed to yield an agreement to release vital loans. The contract fell $1.64 to close at $58.00 a barrel on Thursday on expectations that OPEC will decide to keep its output high at its Friday meeting in Vienna. Brent crude, a benchmark for international oil used by many U.S. The dollar strengthened to 124.48 yen from 124.45 yen.

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Asian stocks traded lower Friday as investor sentiment was dented by an impasse between Greece and its creditors.

WALL STREET: The Standard Poor’s 500 index lost 18.23 points, or 0.9 percent, to finish at 2,095.84. Later Thursday, Greece told the International Monetary Fund that it would postpone a payment due Friday and bundle it together with three other payments at the end of the month. The Dow Jones industrial average fell 170.69 points, or 0.9 percent, to 17,905.58 and the Nasdaq composite lost 40.11 points, or 0.8 percent, to 5,059.12.

ANALYST’S TAKE: “Greek debt negotiations at crunch point and data on U.S

Quality of warhead triggers questioned

Such approval means they are ready to use.

Last summer, the first replacement plutonium trigger in 18 years received “diamond stamp” approval signaling it was ready for use in a warhead. She posed that question in a letter last Friday to Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman.

Since last summer’s announcement, the Los Alamos lab has made 10 additional W88 triggers. The last of the original triggers were manufactured in the late 1980s.

Precise manufacture of the trigger is essential.

Because the United States no longer conducts underground nuclear tests, the Los Alamos scientists had to rely on other sources to replicate the original triggers and guarantee that the replacements would be as reliable as the old.

A watchdog group now is raising questions about whether the replacement triggers, also known as pits, can be guaranteed to be as reliable as those already in some 400 W88 warheads. The scientist spoke on condition of anonymity because of the sensitive nature of the issue.

Any variation or flaw in the pit could cause a warhead not to detonate properly or to detonate with less explosive power than expected.

In a warhead’s detonation, a conventional explosive packaged around the pit compresses the plutonium inward, creating enough pressure for an atomic chain reaction. That, in turn, creates the high temperatures and pressure to ignite a “secondary” nuclear component. The original triggers were made with the benefit of underground nuclear testing, which the U.S. halted in 1992, and through a different process than the replacements. To scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, that was a milestone to celebrate. It meant the warheads, after testing that makes the original trigger unsuitable for reuse, could be reassembled with a new trigger and put back into service.

The new ones were made by using a mold to cast the grapefruit-size plutonium sphere. The result is a a massive hydrogen blast.

The government acknowledges differences between the old triggers and their replacements.

The Project on Government Oversight says it was told by some Los Alamos scientists that the trigger certified last July and known as the W88 pit needed 72 waivers from the specifications used for the original triggers, including 53 engineering-related changes.

Resting atop the Trident II missile, the W88 warhead is among the mainstays of the country’s submarine-based nuclear arsenal. This process is viewed by metallurgists as producing a stronger product.. The original triggers, all made at the now-closed Rocky Flats facility in Colorado, were hammered into precise form. So far, nine have earned the “diamond stamp” from the National Nuclear Security Administration, which oversees the lab’s programs. These means included small-scale plutonium tests, technical data from past underground tests, and computer codes and models.

At least one other replacement pit required 71 specification waivers, a Los Alamos scientist indirectly involved in the production process told The Associated Press. For years, however, testing the warhead’s components to ensure the weapon produces the intended blast instead of a fizzle has been complicated by a lack of replacement plutonium triggers.

“With this large number of waivers, how is it possible to objectively tell whether the pit will even work?” said Danielle Brian, executive director of the group that monitors nuclear weapons-related activities

Tree species diversity and composition in relation to forest borders in two old-field successional stands at Allerton Park, Piatt County, Illinois USA.

596 p.

Burton, P. 1968. 62: 559-563.


The study location was Robert Allerton Park in east-central

Illinois (N39[degrees] 59.9′; W88[degrees] 38.7′), along the

Sangamon River in Piatt County, Illinois. Notes on forest succession in old

fields in southeastern Ontario: the woody species. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. and D. American Journal of Botany. 0.8 60.5 4.5

Prunus serotina Ehrh. imbricaria and U. L. Rolfe (2),

and Jeffrey O. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society.

124(2): 174-188.

Briggs, J. Johnson. The [R.sup.2]

value was 0.30, suggesting that distance to original forest border was

an important factor contributing to the variance in diversity among the


Myster, R. Bell. Stand 2 had 50 percent of its border forested along its

northern boundary. Acorn Dispersal by the

blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata). T. 5: 285-307.

Schwegman, J. Secondary succession on the piedmont of New

Jersey. were present in high

densities. This recreated prairie

is burned periodically to favor prairie and eliminate trees. 7.72 * 20.41

Fraxinus americana L. Calculating an individual index value for each

plot, and then an average, would not accurately reflect the true

diversity of a stand because diversity is sensitive to sample size

(Magurran, 1988). The soil types are the same as those of stand 1 with additional

minor areas (less than 20 percent of total stand area) of Sunbury

(Aquollic Hapludalf) silt loam, which is somewhat poorly drained and was

formed in loess and underlying calcareous loam glacial till under forest

vegetation (Martin, 1991). Grassle, G. Taille (eds.) Ecological Diversity in Theory and Practice. 1993. Small Ulmus spp. L. Guide to common woody plants of

Robert Allerton Park. imbricaria was the

dominant tree. In

stand 1 Q. 0.0 0.0 12.0

Malus spp. 2.96 2.21

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 2.81 * 0.05

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 6.87 * 14.45

Fraxinus americana L. L. macrocarpa, C. and G. Slopes range from 0

to 7 percent. 2.9 0.0 0.0

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. Quercus imbricaria was the only oak species

that had a significantly higher density, basal area, and IVb in stand 2.

The large number of U. 7.71 4.98

Quercus velutina Lam. 1.71 1.13

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 1.24 * 0.05

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Werner. 0.05 * 0.11

Quercus rubra L. 0.96 * 0.09

Acer saccharinum L. H., and R. 0.1 15.0 0.8

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. saccharinum, a

floodplain species, on upland stand 2 is noteworthy. Honkala, tech. H. American Midland

Naturalist. 5.3 1.2 48.2

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 0.3 85.2

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 49(5): 924-936.

Connell, J. L. Acer saccharinum, a floodplain species able to tolerate

wet soils, was most common on, but not restricted to, the Sunbury silt

loam, a somewhat poorly drained soil found in upland depressions. 1974. 10.4 7.8 0.3

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science.

83(3): 128148.

Crowder, A. 0.10 0.08

Quercus velutina Lam. S. Considering that the

seeds of oak and hickory species are commonly distributed by mammals and

gravity, more surrounding forest cover with seed and associated

dispersal agents seemed to increase the chances for these species to

successfully disperse into the site. Wind-dispersed species, followed closely by bird-dispersed

species, often invade old fields in advance of mammal-dispersed species

(Bard, 1952; Buell et al., 1971; Smith, 1975; Christensen and Peet,

1984; Myster and Pickett, 1992; Myster, 1993).

Smith, A. 2.4 60.5 7.0

Quercus alba L. Bulletin of the

Torrey Botanical Club. L. At Allerton Park, we studied two forest stands with differing

original amounts of forest border that developed on pastureland

abandoned in the 1930′s. 1950. Gertner (2), Gary L. A. The two

stands were tested for differences with t-tests using the VP values for

both H’ and D. Robert Allerton Park,

Piatt Co., Illinois. Peet. 79.1 66.7 24.7

Juglans nigra L. 7.4 19.8 14.5

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 38.9 39.5 5.3

Prunus serotina Ehrh. Forest Regeneration on two old

fields in southwestern Illinois. A. The values were pooled because many

species were absent from a large number of the plots, making an analysis

of individual species problematic. Des Moines, Iowa: Woltz Studio

Inc. Quercus imbricaria was the most common tree in

the 31 to 40 cm diameter class. 98(2): 67-74.

Bey, C. C. 54.6 32.5 7.2

Ulmus americana L. In stand 2, the significant

reduction in the IVb, density, and basal area with greater distance from

forest border for species primarily dispersed by mammals is consistent

with this idea. 0.0 0.0 4.9

Tilia americana L. 0.26 * 2.90


Species Stand 1 Stand 2

Quercus imbricaria Michx. Growth and water use

efficiency of Quercus alba, Q. 0.3 3.1 1.9

Crataegus spp. 79.1 66.7 24.7

Juglans nigra L. Koch 2.2 1.2 0.6

Quercus alba L. The most frequent species in both stands were Quercus imbricaria

Michx., Ulmus americana L., Ulmus rubra Muhl., and Juglans nigra L. Colonization by oak

seedlings into a heterogeneous successional habitat. Koch. Microsite requirements for germination and

establishment of three grass species. The floodplains were

dominated by Acer saccharinum L. Tree stratum composition and distribution in the

streamside forest. 15:


Scott M. Prunus serotina, the seed of which is also commonly dispersed

by birds, was more abundant in stand 2 (Table 3).

Zahl, S. albidum made up a

major portion of the total stems, along with F. 1991b. Woody vegetation

of a streamside forest in Illinois. 59(4): 251-272.

Root, T. imbricaria

had its greatest importance in transition zones between floodplain and

upland forests; it was not as common as other Quercus spp. Transactions of the Illinois State

Academy of Science. The distance to nearest forested border in 1936 was determined

from aerial photographs, border forests being defined as those

contiguous areas having at least 50 percent canopy closure. saccharinum and U. 12.0 20.1 8.6

Ulmus rubra Muhl. 119(2): 145-151.

Two successional forest stands developed on pastureland abandoned

during the 1930′s at Allerton Park, Piatt County, Illinois USA were

examined for patterns of tree species diversity and composition. 56(1): 19-34.

The species with seeds primarily dispersed by mammals from stand 2,

for which the density, basal area, and IVb values were pooled, were J.

nigra, Q. Deciduous forests of eastern North America.

Philadelphia, PA: The Blakiston Co. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Total 50.7 36.4 781.6

BA Freq IVa

Species 6 cm 6 cm 6 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. 0.3 28.9 1.6

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. and Celtis

occidentalis L. Boggess. 1.9 82.5 7.7

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 60.0 7.5

Prunus serotina Ehrh. were the two most

important species in an old-growth upland community located immediately

west of stand 1 (Boggess and Geis, 1967). imbricaria in stand 2. 15.9 8.1 0.0

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 72(3): 1076-1088.

In stand 2, Q. 3.1 1.2 0.6

Tilia americana L. Fire and

recruitment of Quercus in a postagricultural field. 0.9 0.3 61.5

Acer saccharinum L. 1981. J. 3.7 76.3 11.0

Ulmus rubra Muhl. 1987. 7.1 15.4 10.5

Quercus velutina Lam. 1.0 0.0 7.2

Acer saccharinum L. Transactions of the

Illinois State Academy of Science. and D. 1991. The measurement of species diversity. Washington DC: U.S. and R. Ulmus americana had a much lower percentage of the total

stems per ha in this size class than in smaller size classes. were less abundant in stand 2 than in narrow

stand 1. ovata,

C. The

[R.sup.2] value for the relationships with distance to forest border in

the wider stand were 0.30 for diversity, 0.32 for density, 0.34 for

basal area, and 0.32 for importance value for species having seed

dispersed primarily by animals. C., L. After

pastures were abandoned the subsequent successional processes were not

altered by tree cutting, mowing, or grazing, which usually occur in the

region. 0.1 7.5 0.6

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.0 10.0 0.4

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. 27.6 27.6 14.6

Ulmus rubra Muhl. and R. Application of the generalized

jack-knife to Shannon’s measure of information used as an index of

diversity. 12.60 * 24.91

Juglans nigra L. G. 0.1 30.0 1.7

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 0.2 21.1 1.6

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. 0.1 5.3 0.4

Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. A preliminary principal components analysis showed no

relationship between tree species composition and soil types

(unpublished data).

Edgington, J. F. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. Koch 6.2 4.9 2.9

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.7 6.8 4.2

Acer saccharum Marsh 7.8 3.6 0.7

Tilia americana L. 5.2 3.9 0.7

Juniperus virginiana L. 4.6 6.8 3.6

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 35.8 26.3 4.9

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 0.0 0.3 3.3

Viburnum prunifolium L. J. 1971. Webb, III. imbricaria acorns (Hermes, 1991). W. 0.0 0.0 3.3

Platanus occidentalis L. 8.05 * 3.92

Ulmus americana L. 104(2): 127-135.

Table 1. Guyon,

Jeremy M. D. Comprehensive Plan for the Illinois Nature

Preserves System: Part 2, The Natrual Divisions of Illinois. Dixon. and J. 5.3 1.2 48.2

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 0.3 85.2

Prunus serotina Ehrh. T. Shingle oak (Quercus

imbricaria) and its hybrids in Michigan. 0.0 0.0 0.6

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.0 0.0 0.6

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. S. Slopes range from 0 to 7

percent. K. Urbana, Illinois: Department of Civil Engineering,


Holmberg Air Mapping Company. 12.7 1.5 0.0

Cercis canadensis L. in

other old-field stands in Illinois (Bazzaz, 1968; Jokela and Sawtelle,

1985). 12.0 20.1 8.6

Total 321.2 301.1 110.9


Species 31-40 cm 41+ cm 6 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. All rights reserved.

If proximity to forest border influences the species composition

and densities of successional forests on old-fields, then differing

amounts of forest border along the perimeter of old-fields and the

extent to which the forest surrounds an old-field should also have an

effect on tree species composition and diversity of successional

forests. 0.0 5.0 0.2

Viburnum prunifolium L. 1.9 82.5 7.7

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 1.2 60.0 7.5

Prunus serotina Ehrh. The Quercus spp. 0.95 0.43

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. and J. 1.5 3.1 18.8

Celtis occidentalis L. 1.9 0.9 35.8

Quercus velutina Lam. Mowing, grazing, and

tree cutting practices during forest succession are common and alter

successional processes in these stands. and D. 8.0 3.1 0.6

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 0.0 5.0 0.2

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.0 2.5 0.1

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. C. 0.7 20.0 2.3

Fraxinus americana L. Quercus

alba dominated the upland forest and the second most dominant oak

species was Q. 0.0 0.0 3.4

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 0.0 0.0 14.2

Cercis canadensis L. 118(4): 365-376.


McDonnell, M. 0.0 0.3 0.0

Cornus spp. This re-sampling procedure calculates the index

n times, where n is the number of plots. and W. S. IV. Field work was

conducted in the summer and fall of 1998 and 1999. For each stand the

number of stems per ha (density), basal area ([m.sup.2]) per ha, and

frequency were estimated for tree species. Schoen. nigra. 0.1 10.5 0.5

Acer negundo L. D. 1977. S. americana had greater abundance in this

stand (Table 3). American Midland Naturalist.

115(1): 131-145.

The reduced abundance in stand 2 for most of the Quercus and Carya

spp. R., W. 1.0 1.3 0.7

Viburnum prunifolium L. Indicators of

past agricultural use included an abrupt soil structure change (granular

to subangular blocky) at depths of 13 cm to 25 cm, non-pedogenic mixing

of the A and B horizons, and evidence of compaction in the lower A


Bell, D. Stiles. Plot means for importance value b (IVb), density, and basal

area (BA) in [m.sup.2], for selected species. 22(3): 195-215.

Kimmins, J. Although separated by an upland forest similar in composition to the

forest surrounding Stand 1, stand 2 has greater proximity to floodplain

and transitional forest seed sources than Stand 1.

This study is unique for several reasons. In the

11-20 cm size class Ulmus spp., Q. The average and maximum distance from a plot

to forest border for stand 1 were 47 m and 99 m, respectively, as

opposed to average distance of 103 m and maximum distance of 204 m for

stand 2.

Ashby, W. Ecological Monographs. 78(1): 89-97.

Keywords: Old-field succession; tree species diversity; Quercus

imbricaria; forest regeneration

In the old-field successional forest stands examined in this study,

proximity to forest border was significantly associated with increased

tree species diversity and differences in species composition. Invasion and ecesis of bird-disseminated woody

plants in a temperate forest sere. 5.9 100.0 20.0

Ulmus americana L. 16(6): 561-571.



Vankat, J. Mill. 0.21 * 0.10

Ulmus americana L. Bretthauer (1), George Z. These stands have

been allowed to succeed naturally without direct anthropogenic disturbance since 1946.

Bazzaz, F. 0.3 0.0 0.0

Morus rubra L. 1978. At Allerton Park in Piatt County

Illinois, old agricultural fields set aside as nature reserves in the

1930′s have reverted to forest without direct subsequent

disturbance. Origins of oak stands on

the Springfield Plain: a lesson on oak regeneration. In the

present study we test these hypotheses and describe the species

composition and structure of the two successional forest stands.

Small fields have been shown to have higher species richness closer

to a forest border (Crowder and Harmsen, 1998). Department of

Civil Engineering. L. Ulmus spp.

currently represent 18.4 percent of the density and 30.2 percent of the

basal area of dead standing trees in stand 1, and 28.3 percent of the

density and 53.7 percent of the basal area of dead standing trees in

stand 2. Near a forested

border, tree density during succession is greater (Myster and Pickett,

1992) and small fields exhibit greater species richness (Crowder and

Harmsen, 1998). 3.3 0.0 0.0

Platanus occidentalis L. and K. Ebinger. American Nurseryman.

174(8): 71.

accepted 6/18/06

Aerial photographs from 1936 and maps from 1948 were used to

describe site history and to delineate stands. Urbana, IL: Agricultural experiment station, University of

Illinois. Differing seed dispersal mechanisms in upland forests

(wind, bird, or mammal) are important in determining the ability of

trees to invade an old-field. Close to the forest border, where a greater number of species

could successfully disperse their seeds, greater diversity would be

expected. 1981. It is unlikely, however, that

there were many residual sprouts from root systems of pasture trees at

the time of agricultural abandonment because cattle browsing usually

eliminates sprouts and clearing the forest for crops typically entailed

the removal of large tree roots and stumps.

A Shannon index of diversity (H’=-[summation] [p.sub.i] 1n

[p.sub.i] where pi equals the proportion of importance for the ith

species) and Simpson index of dominance (D=[summation][p.sub.i] 2 where

[p.sub.i] equals the proportion of importance for the ith species) were

calculated for each stand using the importance values from individual

plots calculated with relative density and relative basal area. American Midland

Naturalist. 0.7 1.0 2.6

Crataegus spp. 22.8 23.1 8.5

Juglans nigra L. Koch 0.3 0.0 4.3

Quercus alba L. Allerton Park is located in the Grand

Prairie Natural Division of Illinois (Schwegman, 1973).

Johnson, F. 64(1): 27-37.

Wagner, W. They

range from moderately well drained (Xenia) to well drained (Miami and

Russell). Dietary

circumvention of acorn tannins by blue jays. Koch. 9.4 12.4 7.2

Fraxinus americana L. Thomas, and C. 0.0 2.5 0.1

Morus rubra L. 1997. 3.3 2.9 0.0

Morus rubra L. 0.7 68.4 4.1

Quercus rubra L. The Condor. 1979. Robert

Allerton, a wealthy benefactor, had established an estate and gardens at

the site, prior to donating it to the University of Illinois. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 1991a. Thesis

(1) Extension Specialist, University of Illinois at

Urbana-Champaign Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering

360Q Agricultural Engineering Sciences Building 1304 W. 3.39 * 1.53

Ulmus americana L. The importance of seed dispersal is often noted, but

with no quantification of the variability associated with seed sources.

Proximity to surrounding forest vegetation has been shown in the present

study to be important as a determinant of species diversity and

composition during old-field succession. 0.2 65.0 3.4

Quercus rubra L. 74(3):


The greater percentage of border perimeter shared with forest

during succession and a narrower configuration of stand 1 with respect

to stand 2, most likely contributed to the greater diversity of stand 1

by providing a proximal seed source during colonization and old-field


Johnson, W. 0.1 32.5 1.8

Cercis canadensis L. Forest development in North America following

major disturbances. W., J. The variance of the VP values is

better than other estimates of H’ variance (Adams and McCune,

1979), making the VP values reliable for significance testing (Zahl,

1977). T. and S. 134. McCune. E. also had values reflecting a

high degree of dominance. Stand 2 has

a wider configuration than stand 1 (Figure 1).

Quercus imbricaria’s natural habitat is wooded floodplains,

especially the margins of floodplains, but it occurs more frequently as

a pioneer species in the disturbed or agricultural landscape (Wagner and

Schoen, 1976). 1985. and T. Quercus imbricaria is an important Quercus sp. W. Bulletin

of the Torrey Botanical Club. O. 1998. A. The majority of the forest presently

bordering both stands is upland, with small percentages of riparian forest border. J. 4.0 3.1 12.4

Crataegus spp. Invasion of trees

in secondary succession on the New Jersey piedmont. L. L. W. There were 38 plots in stand 1 and 40 plots in stand

2. 1.95 * 0.20

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 5.42 6.90

Gleditsia triacanthos L. and J. 1992. 0.2 39.5 2.4

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 0.22 * 0.01

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 0.07 0.10

Gleditsia triacanthos L. were the most important species. Variability of

soil properties, including percent moisture and bulk density, for these

and other upland forest soils at Allerton Park is low (David and Wang,

1989). L. 138(2): 357-370.

Quercus alba L. S. 0.0 5.3 0.3

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. 1975. of Natural

Resources and Environmental Sciences.

Crow, T. Both stands were sampled

using 0.081 ha circular plots systematically located 63.3 m apart along

cardinal azimuths. The D values are also

significantly different (df=49; p-value0.0001). 1994. Pickett. Ecology. F. Allerton Park was established

in 1946 and is owned by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,

which maintains it as a reserve for research and education. 0.2 34.2 1.6

Acer saccharinum L. 0.0 0.0 23.5

Quercus rubra L. K.

Schneid. R. Seed dispersal affects the timing of

invasion and distribution of individual species (Bard, 1952; Buell et

al., 1971; Connell and Slatyer, 1977; Oliver, 1981; McDonnell and

Stiles, 1983; Christensen and Peet, 1984; Burton, 1989; Myster and

Pickett, 1992) and can influence species composition by limiting the

number of species that successfully establish at greater distances from

seed sources.

David, M. Density (number of trees per hectare), basal area (BA,

[m.sup.2] per hectare), frequency (number of plots in which species

occurred / total number of plots), and importance value (IV,

(relative density + relative BA + relative frequency) / 3)

by size classes (dbh in cm) for stand 2.


Species 6-10 cm 11-20cm 21-30 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. We hypothesized that a forest stand that

developed on a narrow field with 92 percent forest border would have

greater species diversity than a forest stand that developed on a wider

field with only a 50 percent forest border. L. in this size class. 79(2):


Harrison, J. Ecology.

72(3): 1066-1075.

The estimate of H’, which is the mean of the VP values, is

2.99 for stand 1, the narrow stand with 92 percent original forest

border. and R. imbricaria had the highest IVa, followed by U. August 13, 1936.

The two stands had similar species composition (Tables 1 and 2). Undisturbed vegetation. In: J. Assembling the land. 1997.

Nut caching by blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata L.): implications for tree

demography. In the 21 to 30 cm dbh size class Q. 0.6 0.0 5.3

Acer negundo L. W. K.

Schneid. Small. R. 3.9 2.3 2.6

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. 6.28 * 0.42

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 5.66 7.75

Gleditsia triacanthos L. Each time the index is

calculated, one plot is systematically removed from the sample. 1.3 7.8 10.7

Celtis occidentalis L. 1994. americana and Juglans

nigra L. Journal of Biogeography. Also in stand 2

Gleditsia triacanthos had significantly lower density and Carya

cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. 1:5,000.

AM-2 [Flight of Piatt County, Illinois]. Its

lower abundance in stand 1 might have been due to the absence of this

poorly drained soil type, which would favor the flood tolerant species

noted above. 0.0 0.0 2.9

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.

Ph.D. palustris

seedlings under conditions of reduced soil water availability and solar

irradiance. 84(3-4): 95-112.

Vankat, J. The mean of the VP values is the best estimate of the index.

Jack-knifing an index of diversity allowed us to examine the influence

of individual plots on the overall diversity of a stand without losing

the overall diversity. Koch 0.03 * 0.01

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K.

Koch. 1991. 5.9 2.2 178.5

Juglans nigra L. The

procedure allowed us to examine the influence of individual plots on

overall stand level diversity, making it possible to quantify the

diversity of a single plot while still permitting a comparison of

diversity between stands. A series of

n pseudovalues (VP) are also created. 0.1 10.5 0.6

Morus rubra L. Gleditsia triacanthos had its highest density in

this size class. J. 112(3): 410-418.

Myster, R. 1984. However, the north side of Stand 2 is within 30 m of the

main floodplain and transitional forests of the Sangamon River (Figure

1). T. The

[R.sup.2] values of 0.30 for the relationship between distance to forest

and diversity and 0.32, 0.34, and 0.32 for the relationships between

distance to forest and density, basal area, and IVb, respectively, for

species whose seed is dispersed primarily by mammals indicate that seed

dispersal mechanisms influence the variation of stand composition,

diversity and structure more than is commonly suggested. 1968. The Michigan Botanist. E. The estimate of H’ for stand 2, the wide stand with only 50

percent original forest border, is 2.44. 0.1 20.0 1.0

Tilia americana L. coords. 5.9 100.0 20.0

Ulmus americana L. The notable exception was

the greater abundance of Q. K.

Schneid. 0.6 0.0 5.9

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. 1974. R. When stand 2

plots that were close to the forest border were removed from diversity

calculations during the jack-knifing procedure, diversity decreased.

When plots far from the border were removed, diversity increased. americana comprised about 30

percent of the stems in the smallest size class (6-10 cm). imbricaria, and Q. 13.6 9.9 4.0

Gleditsia triacanthos L. In this study Ulmus rubra

Muhl. L. Forestry research report No.

89-1. For

example, A. L. Juglans nigra and G.

triacanthos were also common. 0.76 0.40

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Effects of palatability and dispersal mode on spatial patterns of trees in oldfields. velutina. 3.32 2.30

Prunus serotina Ehrh. imbricaria,

the third most common species. Gibson. Dykstra (1999) indicates that stand 1 was

a secondary forest and stand 2 was an abandoned field in 1940. 0.3 0.0 0.0

Quercus imbricaria Michx. Woody vegetation of Baber

Woods, Edgar County, Illinois. 0.7 0.7 1.3

Acer negundo L. E. C. W. These observations indicate that both stands began succession

from pasture to forest in the mid to late 1930′s. Woody vegetation

of Hart Memorial Woods, Champaign County, Illinois. The results of the linear regression analysis, where

VJ=2.41+0.00011*Distance (m), showed a significant relationship with

distance from the forest border (df=39; p-value0.001). 1997. Quercus

imbricaria was the most dominant tree species in the successional

forests of this study, and preference of its small acorns by the blue

jay, which caches acorns in soil and under litter, might be a primary

factor in its ability to more successfully invade old-field successional

stands than other oaks and mammal-dispersed tree species.

The t-tests revealed significant differences between stands in

density, basal area, and IVb for some of the selected tree species

(Table 3). The soils consist of Miami (Oxyaquic Hapludalf) loams and

Xenia (Aquic Hapludalf) and Russell (Typic Hapludalf) silt loams. A. M. Bell. saccharinum from stand 2 had significantly higher values for the

three variables than in stand 1. G. tomentosa, and C. T. 84(1):


Stand 2 is approximately 16.2 hectares in size and is located in

the eastern part of the park directly south of the Sangamon River

approximately 1200 m northeast of stand 1. Johnson, and C. 1.2 65.0 4.9

Celtis occidentalis L. 107(2):


Less forest border and the greater width of stand 2 probably

favored wind-dispersed species compared to mammal-dispersed species. 92(1): 35-46.

The soil examinations from both stands showed evidence of past

grazing and in portions there were indications of plowing. 0.58 * 0.08

Acer saccharinum L. White for help with field-work, Scott M.

Wiesbrook for help with field-work and soil analysis, and Jeffrey D.

Brawn for a discussion of information on blue jay research.

Bazzaz, F. The

ability of tree species to disperse seed might be as important as other

factors, such as competition and herbivory, in determining tree species

composition in old-fields (De Steven, 1991a; 1991b). 1989. Quercus velutina, F. Quercus rubra was the only oak species that

was not significantly different for any of the three variables. 4.9 2.6 1.3

Cercis canadensis L. 3.1 4.6 3.4

Fraxinus americana L. The regression analyses between pooled

values of density, basal area, and IVb and the distance to forest border

were all significant (df=39; p-value0.001). 1.4 80.0 6.8

Ulmus rubra Muhl. L. K.

Schneid. imbricaria, and S. 9.9 11.4 177.0

Ulmus americana L. Weaver. 93: 438-442.


Adams, J. Pelz, and G. 2.9 2.0 1.3

Acer saccharinum L. This relationship was likely not seen in stand 1 because of

its narrow configuration and higher percentage of forested border. Slatyer. 1990. In the 41 cm and

greater size class, Q. Koch. 119(3): 300-307.


Buell, M. 0.0 18.4 0.7

Platanus occidentalis L. Dissertation.

The authors thank John M. Oecologia. Smith. L. Illinois

Nature preserves Commission, Springfield, IL.

received 6/30/05


Johnson, W. 0.13 * 0.01

Quercus alba L. 1984. 0.6 0.3 2.5

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.0 0.0 1.2

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. Geis, and W. Landscape and ecological attributes of

Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) in Allerton Park. 0.08 * 0.30

Fraxinus americana L. Oecologia. 0.0 0.0 18.5

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. Robert

Allerton set aside this land as a nature reserve. 1952. in

undisturbed upland forests (Boggess and Geis, 1967; Root et al., 1971;

Bell, 1974; 1980). 0.3 0.0 0.0

Cornus spp. were common across the entire hydrological gradient while A. L. Bulletin of the

Torrey Botanical Club. 0.02 * 0.00

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. The wider tract had more wind and bird dispersed tree species

and relatively fewer animal dispersed species. 1975. 0.0 0.7 0.3

Crataegus spp. 0.0 0.0 5.2

Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. Juglans nigra represented a significant portion of the 21 to 30

cm size class. 0.8 36.8 2.6

Cercis canadensis L. and Ulmus americana L. For density, the

relationship was Density=16.59-0.0831*Distance (m), with an [R.sup.2]

value of 0.32. R., D. Soil variability in upland

forest soils at Allerton Park, Illinois. Koch 0.4 39.5 2.4

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.8 21.1 2.3

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.1 36.8 1.7

Tilia americana L. 0.1 2.6 0.2

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. 133 [aerial photograph]. Adkisson. J. Species were selected for comparisons based on two criteria: they

were either one of the 10 most dominant species in either stand based on

IVa or they were a species primarily dispersed by mammals. Its remaining border was adjacent to abandoned

pasture that was converted to tallgrass prairie. Forest Ecology and Management. Observations on the ground reveal that two of the seven large

pasture trees identified in the 1936 photograph of stand 2 could have

been Q. E. K.

Schneid. Fairland, MD:

International Cooperative Publishing House: 117-131.

Peet, R. Agriculture Handbook

654. 1979. 1986. No

plots in the narrow stand were far enough from the forest border to

decrease seed dispersal of any tree species in a way that significantly

influenced stand diversity. 3.7 100.0 16.7

Juglans nigra L. 1976. 0.0 2.6 0.1

Cornus spp. Koch 2.07 * 0.52

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K.

Koch. 0.0 0.0 11.7

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Patil, W. 65.2 68.3 22.2

Ulmus americana L. 0.2 7.9 0.6

Crataegus spp. P. In addition a linear regression analysis was used to statistically

quantify the relationship of VJ with distance from forest border for the

wider stand 2 which afforded sufficient width to do so. Ecology. and P. Convergence during

secondary forest succession. ed. saccharinum dominated the floodplain forests and

poorly drained soils (Boggess and Geis, 1967; Root et al., 1971; Bell,

1974; Johnson and Bell, 1975; Johnson et al., 1978).

University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign Campus). 0.3 0.0 0.0

Total 327.7 261.7 105.0

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.0 0.0 12.0

Tilia americana L. SAF publication 85-05, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois:


Christensen, N. 1977. 0.0 2.6 0.1

Total 24.0 1181.6 100.0

Table 2. L. del Moral. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Robinia pseudoacacia L. and J. 1988. University of

Illinois, Urbana, IL. This

indicates plots closer to forested border positively influenced the

H’ value for stand 2 and plots far from the border negatively

influenced the H’ value. H. 0.2 18.4 0.9

Viburnum prunifolium L. American elm. Composition of an upland,

streamside forest in Piatt County, Illinois. and S. Wang. 0.7 0.0 1.0

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. Regression analyses were performed

with each pooled variable and distance from plots to forest border to

examine relationships between the abundance of the mammal dispersed

species and the distance to forest border.

Dykstra, M. Bulletin of

the Torrey Botanical Club. At greater distances from

the nearby forest, tree species with longer seed dispersal ranges could

establish earlier during succession, affording them a competitive

advantage. 1983. Adkisson. R. 0.06 * 0.02

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. 0.3 0.0 0.7

Robinia pseudoacacia L. Transactions of the

Illinois State Academy of Science. Quercus imbricaria. 1977. L. Dawson

and K. Quercus imbricaria is also drought tolerant (McCarthy and Dawson,

1990), an attribute of early successional species (Bazzaz, 1979). L. F. American Midland Naturalist. Tree invasion and establishment in old fields

at Hutcheson Memorial Forest. W. While the jack-knifing

procedure has been used previously to estimate and test the Shannon and

Simpson indices, and has been shown to provide superior accuracy, to our

knowledge the technique has not previously been applied to assess the

influence of individual plots in studies of forest succession. imbricaria and other Quercus spp. Elsewhere at Allerton Park and along the Sangamon River,

small diameter Ulmus spp. 0.01 * 0.10

* Significantly different (probability 0.05)

COPYRIGHT 2007 Illinois State Academy of Science

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.


Braun, E. 8.35 5.86

Quercus velutina Lam. F., H. 62(1): 81-85.

Records indicate that both study stands were cleared in the late

1800′s and subsequently used for cattle grazing (Foster, 1981).

Aerial photographs and maps show that both stands were originally grassy

pastures with scattered trees (Holmberg Air Mapping Company, 1936;

University of Illinois, 1948). and D. were ranked 3 and 6, respectively, due to a

high number of stems in small diameter classes. 1971. Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, Urbana.

Oliver, C. The

Shannon index of diversity and Simpson index of dominance were

calculated for both stands using the jack-knifing procedure. Quercus imbricaria

and U. The stand is at least 6 m above the

floodplain of the Sangamon River, but can occasionally have standing

water in depressions associated with Sunbury silt loam. L., and G. and E. Brownfield Woods, Illinois: present

composition and changes in community structure. Acorn preference of urban

blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) during fall and spring in northwestern

Arkansas. Quercus imbricaria, U. Also the

study site is unique in that areas of undisturbed succession in central

Illinois are rare because of the typical history of both timber

harvesting and grazing in secondary forests.

The critical differences between the stands for the purposes of

this study are the amount of surrounding forest at the time of

abandonment and the configuration of the fields. 1989. 1.2 47.5 4.9

Quercus velutina Lam. 1.0 92.1 7.7

Quercus velutina Lam. 1975. 1.08 * 0.43

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. 1.6 78.9 7.0

Juglans nigra L. 0.06 0.05

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.06 * 0.00

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 22.8 10.4 5.9

Prunus serotina Ehrh. and Quercus velutina Lam. Gradient trends in the streamside forest of

central Illinois. Calculating the diversity of each plot

separately and using the mean to quantify stand diversity is problematic

because it is possible for two plots to have identical values for

diversity yet be composed of completely different species. were absent in

southern Illinois old-fields less than 25 years old (Bazzaz, 1968;


Bazzaz, F. A. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Morus rubra L. 65.2 68.3 22.2

Ulmus americana L. 1991. Koch. The park is located in

the Prairie Peninsula of the oak-hickory forest region in the central

United States (Braun, 1950). The Canadian

Field-Naturalist. Dawson (2)

Two separate upland forest tracts used as pasture prior to the

1930′s were selected as study sites. The structural complexity

of old field vegetation and the recruitment of bird-dispersed plant

species. Juglans nigra was third, but had less than half the IVa of U.

americana. The physiological ecology of plant succession.

Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. Ecology. velutina and Q. americana, Prunus serotina Ehrh., and

A. The values for

tree density, basal area, and IVb for major mammal dispersed species

were pooled by plot for stand 2. 118(4): 392-398.

Martin, W. 7.2 6.5 4.2

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 36 p.

Fowler, N. Crow, and M. B. 1991. 1991. imbricaria’s dominance

in both stands and its greater abundance in stand 2 than in stand 1.

Most other Quercus spp. 0.2 31.6 1.7

Juniperus virginiana L. 1:4250. Many studies

focus exclusively on site characteristics, resource availability, and

competition as important determinants of forest successional patterns

(Kimmins, 1997). E. americana had the highest IVa

(Table 2). Koch. Rolfe. A series

of jack-knife estimates (VJ) are created for each plot, and represent

the diversity of the stand with an individual plot removed. In stand 2 diversity was highest close to

the forest border and decreased as distance from the forest border

increased. 1981. The Botanical Review. 94: 159-164.

Mature pasture trees could have provided a seed source within the

field. velutina, Q. Annual

Review of Ecology and Systematics. 10: 351-371.

Scarlett, T. rubra, Q. were distributed throughout the stand, not

solely on the poorly drained Sunbury silt loam, indicating a greater

ecological amplitude for this species with respect to soil moisture

conditions. In the transitional zone between the uplands and floodplains,

which is subject to minor flooding, Quercus imbricaria Michx. K. The role of blue jays

(Cyanocitta cristata L.) in the postglacial dispersal of Fagaceous trees

in eastern North America. Canadian Journal of

Botany. Sawtelle. Gleditsia triacanthos L. A. Majerus (eds.) Proceedings Fifth Central Hardwood Forest

Conference. imbricaria was the most common species, followed by U.

americana and J. The upper

soil horizons in both stands were examined for indicators of past

agricultural use.

Jokela, J. 1991. 1.2 1.5 0.6

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Snyder. 2.54 * 0.71

Carya ovata (Mill.) K. H., Jr. 8.5 20.5 7.8

Quercus alba L. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. Urbana, IL 61801 phone: (217) 333-9418; email: sbrettha@uiuc.edu

Johnson, G. For IVb,

it was IVb=32.06-0.1564*Distance (m), with and [R.sup.2] value of 0.32.

In agricultural regions of the Midwest there are few examples of

uninterrupted succession from old-field to forest. In: Becker, N. These soils were formed under forest vegetation on till plain

in loess, other silty material, and the underlying calcareous loam

glacial till (Martin, 1991).

Bell, D. 0.2 35.0 1.9

Malus spp. K.

Schneid. The

Shannon index of diversity and the Simpson index of dominance are

heterogeneity indices that combine information on both species richness

and species evenness (Peet, 1974). glabra. L.

Boggess, W. 7.21 * 14.33

Juglans nigra L. Effect of soil surface

topography and litter cover on the germination, survival, and growth of

musk thistle (Carduus nutans). 2.26 * 1.00

Celtis occidentalis L. T. 7.22 * 1.04

Quercus alba L. Reduced forest border and

increased distance from forest stands increases establishment of wind

and bird dispersed tree species over mammal dispersed species. 0.73 * 5.48


Species Stand 1 Stand 2

Quercus imbricaria Michx. M. E. 0.7 0.0 9.4

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. W. Recruitment into larger size classes

is likely limited due to Dutch elm disease mortality, which Bell (1997)

found to be highest in trees with a dbh greater than 26 cm. 0.6 0.6 0.3

Acer saccharum Marsh 0.9 0.0 0.3

Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. In the 31 to 40 cm size

class, Q. Quercus imbricaria was

the dominant tree species among oaks and other species in this study,

perhaps due to preference of its small acorns by the blue jay, which

carries and caches acorns in soil and under litter.

Darley-Hill, S. 1993. Soil Survey of Piatt County, Illinois. Koch. Geis. cordiformis, C. Ulmus rubra was codominant in 90 year

old successional stands in Ohio (Vankat and Snyder, 1991), and an early

to mid-successional species in other parts of central Illinois (McClain

and Ebinger, 1968).

Jones, A. 1992. 1973. Size-class structure of three

streamside forests. Intra-

and inter-stand comparisons and their implications for succession

mechanisms. This indicates that

the most common species are more dominant in stand 2 than in stand 1.

Bell, D. rubra and U.

americana (Table 1). American Midland Naturalist. A

regression equation using the jack-knifed values quantified a

significant decrease in diversity with distance from forest border for

the wider old-field stand. Sassafras

albidum (Nutt.) Nees, Q. A. 3.31 * 6.39

Quercus rubra L. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Cornus spp. 0.15 0.10

Celtis occidentalis L. Ulmus rubra and U. 3.7 1.5 46.0

Total 38.9 25.6 797.8

BA Freq IVa

Species 6 cm 6 cm 6 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. americana, Q.

alba, Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, Quercus macrocarpa Michx., Carya ovata

(Mill.) K. The

Allerton legacy: Proceedings of a symposium at Robert Allerton Park.

Urbana, IL: Allerton Trust Management Board, University of Illinois:


During early succession to forest, tree density is usually highest

near forest borders. 131(1): 84-97.

Bell, D. and E. 0.19 0.15

Ulmus rubra Muhl. M. 1.3 84.2 8.2

Ulmus americana L. M.S. M. Jackknifing an index of diversity. Since the stands

differed with respect to both of these attributes, both indices were


De Steven, D. Smith, and C. Soil

Report No. imbricaria, Fraxinus americana L., and C.

occidentalis also had high numbers of stems in this size class. 4.42 3.51

Prunus serotina Ehrh. L. Ulmus americana has been found to be an initial invader (Briggs

and Gibson, 1992; Crow et al., 1994; Crowder and Harmsen, 1998) and a

dominant early to mid-successional species in northern Illinois (Bell

and del Moral, 1977; Bell, 1997). bicolor, Q. The

greater mass of Q. D. alba outnumbered Q. D. Lee. The estimate of D for stand 1 is 0.06;

the estimate of D for stand 2 is 0.13. These two trees were less than 40 m from the forest

border and by themselves could not likely have contributed to the

differences observed between stands in this study through seed or

sprouts. The total basal area for stand 1 was 24.0

m2 per hectare, with 782 stems per hectare.

Bard, G. 3.7 1.5 46.0

Ulmus rubra Muhl. 2.32 * 3.73

Quercus rubra L. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service:


Copyright 2007 Gale, Cengage Learning. L. Stand 1 is located in the

southwestern portion of the park and is approximately 15.4 ha in size.

The portion sampled is at least 4.5 m above the floodplain of the

Sangamon River and not subject to periodic flooding. We further hypothesized that

species diversity and the abundance of mammal dispersed tree species

would decrease with increasing distance from forest borders. C. 0.0 0.0 6.2

Morus rubra L. These means were used in t-tests to

examine differences between stands in ecological values for the selected

species. 3.1 6.2 4.9

Celtis occidentalis L. 1989. 4.87 * 0.98

Quercus alba L. 0.6 0.0 0.0

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet 0.0 0.6 0.0

Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C. Effects of a prescribed burn on tree- and

herb-layer vegetation in a post oak (Quercus stellata) dominated

flatwoods. As succession progresses, tree density begins to

increase further from the forest border until eventually the entire

field is stocked (Myster and Pickett, 1992). 50: 231-232.

McClain, W. Ulmus spp. 56: 109-116.

Johnson, W. Seed

dispersal by the blue jay, which, unlike most birds, caches acorns in

the soil and under litter, could explain Q. I. Ecological diversity and its measurement.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 8.88 7.61

Ulmus rubra Muhl. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Quercus imbricaria Michx. and R. 0.1 17.5 1.0

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. 0.1 2.6 0.2

Prunus spp. imbricaria. O. Harmsen. Mill. All woody stems greater than 6 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh)

(Root et al., 1971; Boggess and Geis, 1967; Johnson et al., 1978;

Edgington, 1991) within a plot were recorded by species to the nearest

cm dbh, and dead standing trees were also recorded. 0.02 * 0.00

Acer saccharinum L. Quercus velutina and Quercus rubra L.

had more stems than the Ulmus spp. 3.71 3.90

Ulmus rubra Muhl. The H’ values are

significantly different (df=75; p-value0.0001) indicating that stand

1 is more diverse than stand 2. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 0.0 2.5 0.1

Quercus imbricaria Michx. 0.0 0.0 0.9

Viburnum prunifolium L. These values indicate that factors

associated with seed dispersal probably influence the variation of

forest composition and structure more than is commonly suggested.

Proximity to forest vegetation seems to be important as a determinant of

species diversity and composition during old-field succession at this

location. Quercus imbricaria sprouts (Dolan, 1994), and sprouting from

root systems of seedlings that developed during the pasture phase might

explain Q. Besides the successional stands, at Allerton Park and

other forests along the Sangamon River in central Illinois Q. Buell, and J. 0.0 0.0 1.6

Prunus spp. In: J. 1999. For the

selected species, the mean plot values for density, basal area, and IVb

were calculated for each stand. 179 p.

Hermes, J. Second Edition. 5.9 2.2 178.5

Juglans nigra L. A. L. acorns relative to

the seed mass of wind dispersed species may afford the Quercus spp.

seeds an advantage in penetrating through grassland plant communities

(Jokela and Sawtelle, 1985; Fowler, 1986; Hamrick and Lee, 1987). had significantly lower IVb and basal

area relative to stand 1. 1980. J. The largest size class (41 + cm) was dominated by Q.

imbricaria. Shafer and Aaron M. Edgington for advice, Lyle J. from stand 2 had

significantly lower values for all three variables. In

addition, Quercus imbricaria may be primarily dispersed by the blue jay

(Cyanocitta cristata L.) (Darley-Hill and Johnson, 1981; Harrison and

Werner, 1984; Johnson and Webb, 1989; Johnson et al., 1993; Johnson et

al., 1997) which prefers small acorns (Scarlett and Smith, 1991) and is

known to take the small Q. 11.4 8.5 7.8

Quercus rubra L. Vegetation gradients in the

streamside forest of Hickory Creek, Will County, Illinois. The other stand with a higher percentage of

forest perimeter and a narrower configuration was more diverse. Champaign, IL: Stipes Publishing Co. americana stems in the smaller size classes

(Tables 1 and 2) and its intermediate shade tolerance (Bey, 1990)

suggest that existing elm trees may not have been initial colonizers.

Ulmus americana, however, comprised 9 percent of the stems in the 41 cm

and greater size class in stand 2. 0.30 * 0.47

Juglans nigra L. Stand 1 was narrower

and had a greater percentage of its perimeter bordered by forest at

the time of agricultural abandonment.


Species Stand 1 Stand 2

Quercus imbricaria Michx. Species importance values

(IV) were calculated using a sum of relative density, relative basal

area, and relative frequency, were scaled to 100 by dividing by 3, and

are referred to hereafter as IVa. L. 1970. American Midland Naturalist. Mill. 3.7 100.0 16.7

Juglans nigra L. Importance values were also calculated

for each individual plot using only relative density and relative basal

area. Juglans

nigra also did not differ significantly in mean values for any of the

variables between stands. Koch, and Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt. 1.2 1.9 1.5

Acer negundo L. Dawson. O. 1.2 35.0 3.6

Crataegus spp. These were also scaled to 100 and are referred to hereafter as

IVb. Sheets 3 and 6 [map]. combined made up almost

69 percent of the stems in this size class. 0.1 5.3 0.2

Robinia pseudoacacia L. T. 1976. americana dominated the three smallest size classes in stand 2.

Sassafras albidum had a large number of stems in the two smallest size

classes. J. 3: 153-168.

. 0.0 0.0 2.6

Acer negundo L. 0.3 0.6 0.0

Viburnum prunifolium L. Experiments on mechanisms of tree

establishment in old-field succession: seedling emergence. The Shannon index is biased towards

species richness, while the Simpson index is biased towards the

abundance of the most common species (Magurran, 1988). 1.8 60.5 5.4

Celtis occidentalis L. Journal of Ecology. M. (Table 3) suggests their ability to invade the stand was reduced

with increasing distance from a forest border. T. American Journal of Botany. Plant species diversity in old-field

successional ecosystems in southern Illinois. Koch 0.1 7.5 0.6

Quercus alba L. 7.4 19.8 14.5

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 38.9 39.5 5.3

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 0.6 0.3 28.4

Gleditsia triacanthos L. 1.4 80.0 6.8

Total 21.1 1005.0 100.0

Table 3. 0.0 0.0 0.3

Cornus spp. Ecology. Similarly, Quercus and Carya spp. 103(12): 25-


McCarthy, J. Koch. C., C. 0.8 57.9 3.6

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. 0.0 2.5 0.1

Cornus spp. Oecologia. P. In accordance with our hypothesis, we expected plots

close to the forest border to have a positive influence (greatest tree

diversity), plots far from the border to have a negative influence

(least tree diversity), and plots in between to have little influence

(intermediate tree diversity) on the diversity of a stand. The ranking of seventh in IVa for A. 0.2 15.0 1.0

Acer negundo L. Stand 1 has a long and

narrow configuration (Figure 1) and was almost completely surrounded by

mature forest, having 92 percent of its perimeter contiguous with

original forest. The relationship for basal area was Basal

Area=0.76-0.0040*Distance (m), with an [R.sup.2] value of 0.34. The species composition

of the portion of Allerton Park northeast of stand 2 has also been well

documented (Bell, 1974; Johnson and Bell, 1975; Bell, 1980). T. 56(2): 485-488.

(2) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Dept. Forest Ecology: A Foundation for Sustainable

Management. 5.54 3.35

Celtis occidentalis L. 1.0 0.0 10.7

Juniperus virginiana L. 1990. Succession on abandoned fields in the Shawnee

Hills, southern Illinois. In: Silvics of North America, Volume

2, Burns, R. 1.9 0.9 13.9

Fraxinus americana L. Constraints to tree invasion on a nutrient rich

site during old-field succession. imbricaria’s dominance. and B. Effect of fire on tree

spatial patterns in a tallgrass prairie landscape. 31.8 22.9 5.6

Acer saccharinum L. 1.0 75.0 6.6

Acer saccharinum L. 0.06 0.04

Prunus serotina Ehrh. 111(982): 1119-1144.

De Steven, D. 9 p.

Foster, F. American Naturalist. A significant increase

in diversity with proximity to original forest border was evident only

for stand 2. 1967. Acer saccharinum also had a large proportion of its total

number of stems per ha in this size class. 2.7 42.1 6.0

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees 0.8 57.9 5.6

Gleditsia triacanthos L. Density (number of trees per hectare), basal area (BA,

[m.sup.2] per hectare), frequency (number of plots in which

species occurred / total number of plots), and importance value

(IV, (relative density + relative BA + relative frequency) / 3)

by size classes (dbh in cm) for stand 1.


Species 6-10 cm 11-20cm 21-30 cm

Quercus imbricaria Michx. 2.9 2.3 0.0

Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. 72(1): 25-36.

There was an apparent relationship between the VJ values of H’

and distance from original forest border (m) in stand 2. 596


A jack-knifing procedure (Zahl, 1977) was used to calculate the

indices for each stand. Adkisson, T. Bulletin of the Torrey

Botanical Club. Pennsylvania

Ave. Koch 1.29 * 0.35

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K.

Koch. Experiments on mechanisms of tree

establishment in old-field succession: seedling survival and growth.

Ecology. 6.2 5.3 0.6

Malus spp. The VJ values from the jack-knifing procedure using

H’ were examined for relationships with distance from forest border

(m). American Midland Naturalist. 2.7 60.5 7.2

Fraxinus americana L. Mechanisms of succession

in natural communities and their role in community stability and

organization. 9.9 11.4 177.0

Ulmus americana L. 18.2 5.3 0.0

Quercus rubra L. 0.5 65.0 4.2

Gleditsia triacanthos L. Floristics of a

chronosequence corresponding to old field-deciduous forest succession in

southwestern Ohio. 58(4):


Dolan, R. Most of

the 600 ha of the park are rolling terrain and floodplain with both

old-growth and second growth upland and bottomland forests. The configurations and proximity to surrounding forest

permitted examination and comparison of the composition and diversity of

two old-field successional stands.


Magurran, A. 71(4): 412-419.

Adjacent vegetation influences tree invasion during old-field

succession (Bazzaz, 1968; Vankat, 1991; Myster, 1993) and species found

invading old-fields are often found in proximal forest stands (Ashby and

Weaver, 1970; Buell et al., 1971; Crowder and Harmsen, 1998). 49.7 28.3 5.2

Quercus velutina Lam. Both

stands were described as successional forest in 1976 (Jones and Bell,

1976). There were

798 stems per ha having a total basal area of 21.1 m2 per ha for stand


Hamrick, J. W. Floristics of a chronosequence corresponding to

old field-deciduous forest succession in southwestern Ohio. 0.0 1.0 0.7

Prunus spp. 3.4 1.9 0.0

Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)

K. Eighteen years of change in an Illinois

streamside deciduous forest

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Asked what he would consider a hostile act, Dempsey said “attacking our critical infrastructure” would be a act worthy of a similar response.

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Hacking by China not necessarily a “hostile act” – CNN Security Clearance

Asked what he would consider a hostile act, Dempsey said “attacking our critical infrastructure” would be a act worthy of a similar response.

But Dempsey told the Senate Armed Services Committee where he was testifying that he cannot attribute the Chinese hacking to China’s military, the People’s Liberation Army.

Graham noted he was about to lunch with the Vice President of China who is in the U.S.

Asked by Republican Senator Lindsey Graham from South Carolina if it could be proven that the PLA was behind a hacking of the defense infrastructure, would it be considered a “hostile act,” Dempsey said it wasn’t necessarily.

By Adam Levine

Gen. Martin Dempsey, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said he “believe(s) someone in China is hacking into our systems and stealing technology and intellectual property which at this point is a crime.”

The U.S. this week and asked Dempsey if there was anything he wanted to pass on to Xi Jinping.. infrastructure, it would not necessarily be a “hostile act.”

“Happy Valentine’s Day,” Dempsey replied.

“I would consider it a crime,” Dempsey said. top military officer said should China’s military be found to be behind hacks into the U.S